From how much milk a baby needs, to how often they should feed, here’s everything you ought to know about breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding is one of the best things you can do for your baby. Even if you’re struggling and only manage a few feeds, your child will still benefit.
The milk you naturally produce is like a magical elixir. It’s packed with antibodies that help protect babies from infections and diseases. These antibodies reduce the risk of everything from diarrhoea to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), leukaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular problems. Research has shown that the positive effects last well beyond the early years. According to the research, adults who were breastfed as babies spend longer in school and have higher IQs.
It doesn’t end here though, as there are bonuses for mothers, too. Breastfeeding has been shown to lower your risk of breast cancer, heart disease and obesity. It gives you time to bond with your baby; and as you’re using up extra calories, you can get away with another biscuit.
Breastfeeding | Find your own way
It’s no wonder the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusively feeding your baby breast milk for the first six months. Yet figures show the UK has the lowest rate of breastfeeding in the world. That may be because breastfeeding doesn’t come naturally to everyone. Some people need more support.
“You may find breastfeeding a piece of cake, or it may be a real challenge,” says midwife Clare Byam-Cook, the maternity nurse behind ‘Breastfeeding Without Tears’. “Your experience depends as much on your own biology – how much milk you produce and how fast it flows – as your baby’s biology. Some babies instinctively know what to do. Others take a little while to get the hang of it. So allow a few weeks for both of you to get in sync.”
The Basics| How do I breastfeed for the first time?
While you may expect breastfeeding to come naturally, it can take a bit of practice at first. Follow Clare’s tips to help you get into the swing of things.
Get into position
Suck it up
How often should I breastfeed my baby?
A newborn baby should be feeding around every two hours. That may sound like a lot, but feeds are very short for the first three or four days because this is when you produce colostrum. Colostrum is a potent pre-milk, produced during pregnancy and the first days of breastfeeding. It’s insanely rich in protective antibodies, meaning they only need about a teaspoon of colostrum each feed.
After 2 weeks:
“When your milk supply is properly established – which takes around two weeks – your baby is likely to be able to go up to three hours between feeds,” says Clare. “You’ll know your baby is getting enough milk if you can lie them down without them crying. If they’re feeding every hour, they’re probably not getting a full feed, only a snack.” If you think your baby isn’t getting a full feed, check you have the latch right (see below).
After 3 months:
If all this feeding sounds exhausting, don’t worry. “Over time, your baby will be able to hold more milk in their tummy,” assures Clare, who says a three-month-old baby will start to go four hours between day feeds and could only need one at night. “Gradually you’ll work out how much milk you have and how long it takes for your baby to get a full feed.”
How do I know when my baby wants milk?
Is your baby putting their hands to their mouth? Are they opening their mouth and turning their head from side to side? Have they woken up from a nice sleep in tears?
“If the answer to one or more of these questions is yes, then your baby wants milk,” confirms Clare. “You’ll know they’re definitely hungry when you latch them onto your breast and they start sucking efficiently.”
How can I help my baby latch on to my breast for feeding?
Latching, or getting your baby to attach to your breast, is a skill that you may need to work on a bit at first. These tips should help.
“Holding your baby in position, stroke your nipple over their top lip to help their mouth open wide,” says Clare. “You want them to have as much breast as possible in their mouth, not just your nipple. Their nose should be touching your breast.”
If your baby is chewing on your nipple but not taking any deep sucks, they may not be latched on correctly. “When you take them off your breast, you may find your nipple is squashed into a lipstick shape,” says Clare. “That’s another sign they’re not latched on properly.
“You’ll know you’ve got it right when you see your baby doing deep rhythmic sucks, and your nipples don’t hurt.”
How do I know when my baby’s had enough milk?
Most babies will give clear signals when they’re full, including:
They finish feeding
If your baby stops feeding, then that can be a good indicator that they’ve finished. While some babies can take their time, and stop and start, you can trust that when they’ve had enough, they’ll show you.
They burp well
If you manage to get two or three good burps out of your child, that’s a great sign they’ve had enough.
They look content
If your child looks content and satisfied after a feed, there’s a good chance they are.
They sleep in their cot
If your child goes to sleep in their cot, only waking two or three hours later for their next feed, it’s a good indicator.
A well-fed baby will also produce lots of wet nappies and be steadily gaining weight.
And if your mini nipple-latching monster hasn’t had enough milk, you’ll know about that, too. “If your baby’s still hungry, they’ll cry as soon as you put them down, or doze for 20 minutes,” explains Clare. “It’s because they’ve used your breast as a dummy and not actually sucked enough milk to satisfy them.”
Like the first time you attempt anything, you’re bound to have worries and concerns. Especially when it comes to your baby and your own safety. But it’s important to remember that these niggles are nothing that any other new parent doesn’t experience. The best way to combat those fears is to research it beforehand. We’ve pulled together a list of the biggest worries new mums have.
Does breastfeeding hurt?
What should I do if I’m struggling to breastfeed?
What if I don’t have enough milk?
What if I have too much milk?
My breasts are leaking! What should I do?
Can I breastfeed a baby with teeth?
We hope these questions take some of that worry away, but we know that it’s hard to overcome until you actually start. However, it’s best to remember that millions of new parents have been where you are now. While it may all feel new and daunting, you’ll get the hang of it with a bit of practice.
“I screamed when my six-month-old baby bit me during feeding. But my reaction scared him so much he didn’t try using his teeth on me again. And breastfeeding definitely helped soothe his teething pain. I know it sounds weird until you’ve tried it, but when your baby is latched on properly you don’t feel any sharp teeth at all.”
If you think bottle feeding is the way for you, then don’t forget to read The M&P Guide to Bottle Feeding.
Also, we have a guide for what parenting essentials you’ll need, whether you bottle or breastfeed.